Eukaryotic cells are complex and organized structures that make up the bodies of plants, animals, fungi, and protists. They are distinguished from prokaryotic cells by their larger size and the presence of a nucleus, which houses their genetic material.
In addition to the nucleus, eukaryotic cells contain several other specialized membrane-bound organelles that carry out specific functions. These include mitochondria, which produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and the endoplasmic reticulum, which helps synthesize and transport proteins.
Other organelles include the Golgi apparatus, which processes and packages proteins for transport within and outside the cell, lysosomes, which contain enzymes that break down waste materials, and peroxisomes, which help break down fatty acids.