Microorganisms have Microbial Associations usually have been considered as isolated entities.
Most microorganisms live in complex communities.
These microbial interactions and their roles in nature and disease are crucial.
Microorganisms can interact physically with other organisms in a variety of ways.
Microbes have evolved while interacting with the inorganic world and with higher organisms, and they largely play beneficial and vital roles.
Disease-causing agents are a small part of the insect world.
Microbes also contribute to the functioning of ecosystems, or self-regulating biological communities and their physical environment.
It defines the relationship in which some reciprocal benefit accrues to both partners.
Here the mutualist and the host are metabolically dependent on each other.
1] The protozoan-termite relationship
These protozoans exist on a diet of carbohydrates, acquired as cellulose ingested by their host.
Protozoa engulf wood particles, grind cellulose, and then grind it into acetate and other products.
Termites oxidize the acetate released by the protozoans. Because the host is almost always incapable of synthesizing cellulases (enzymes that Catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose), it is dependent on the mutualistic protozoa for its existence.
2] Riftia spp.
The giant, red, gutless tubeworms (Riftia spp.) takes up hydrogen sulfide from the seawater and binds to hemoglobin (the reason the worms are bright red).
Hydrogen sulfide is then transported in this way to bacteria, which use the lowering of sulfide to repair carbon dioxide in the Calvinist cycle.
The CO2 needed for this cycle is transmitted to bacteria in three ways: it is released directly into the bloodstream, bound to hemoglobin, and in the form of organic compounds such as malate and succinate.
These acids are decarboxylated to release CO2 from the trophosome, a tissue that has bacterial symptoms.
Using these mechanisms, the bacteria synthesize reduced organic material from inorganic substances.
The organic material is then supplied to the tubeworm through its circulatory system and serves as the main nutritional source for the tissue cells.
Relationships where one symbiont, commensal, benefits while another (sometimes called Host) does not harm or nation.
This is a unidirectional process.
The spatial proximity of the two partners permits the commensal to feed on substances captured originated by the host the commensal often obtains shelter by living either on or in the host.
The commensal is not directly dependent on the host metabolically and causes it no particular harm.
When a commensal is separated from its commander in an attempt, it can survive without being given.
Some factors or factors of host origin.
Commensalism relationships between microorganisms include situations in which the waste product of one microorganism is the substrate for another species.
1] Nitrification Process
The oxidation of ammonium ion to nitrite by microorganisms such as Nitrosomonas and the subsequent oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate by Nitrobacter and similar bacteria Nitro-bacter benefits from its association with Nitrosomonas because it uses nitrite to obtain energy for growth.
2] Non-Pathogenic strain of E-coli
It lives in the human colon, but also grows quite well outside the host, and this is a typical commensal. When oxygen is used up with an anaerobic E-Coli, combine anaerobes like Bacteroides that can grow in the colon. The anaerobes benefit from the association with the host and E. coli, but E. coli derives no obvious benefit from the anaerobes. In this case, the commensal E. coli contributes to the welfare of other symbionts.