Plant Resources of Alkaloids – Serial wise | Biology Ideas

Plant Resources used as alkaloids –

 

Adathoda

Common name – Adulsa, Vasaka

Botanical source – Adhatoda vasica Nees

Family – Acanthaceae

Part Used – Fresh and dried leaves

Type: Alkaloid- Vasicine, vasicinone

 

No.Botanical NameFamilyPart UsedMain alkaloid
1Atropa belladonnaSolanaceaeLeaves and rootsAtropine

Hyocyamine

2Coffea arabicaRubiaceaeDried berriesCaffeine
3Nicotiana tabacumSolanaceaeLeavesNicotine
4Piper nigrumPiperaceaeSeedsPiperine
5Withania somniferaSolanaceaeRootsWithanolides
6Papver somniferumPapveraceaeUnripe capsuleMorphine
7Rauwolfia serpentinaApocynaceaeRootsReserpine

Ajmalicine

8Catharanthus roseusApocynaceaeLeavesVincristine

Vinblastine

9Adathoda vasicaAcanthaceaeLeavesVasicine
10Boerhaavia diffusaNyctaginaceaeLeavesPunarnavine

 

Uses –

1. It is an expectorant and bronchodilator, used in cough and acute bronchitis.

2. Leaf poultice is applied over fresh wounds, rheumatic joints, and inflammatory swellings.

3. Leaf extract is used in dysentery and diarrhea.

4. The leaves are diuretic and antispasmodic.

 

Catharanthus

Common name – Sadabahar, Sadaphuli, or Periwinkle

Botanical source – Catharanthus roseus

Family – Apocynaceae

Part Used – Leaves and Root

Type – Alkaloid, Leaves-Vincristine, and Vinblastine;

Roots – Reserpine, Ajmalicine, Serpentine.

 

Uses –

1. More than 100 alkaloids have been isolated from the leaves and roots of this plant. The most important is the antileukemic alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine present in the leaves.

2. Vincristine is used for the treatment of acute leukemia in children during chemotherapy.

3. The leaf extract is also useful against Staphylococcal and Streptococcal bacterial infections.

4. Roots are useful for the treatment of hypertension as they help in reducing blood pressure.

5. The roots also have sedative (sleep-inducing) properties.

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