Here are some important sources of Protein…
Common name – Soyabean
Botanical source – Glycine max L.
Family – Leguminosae
Part Used – Seed
Simple protein – glycinine, phaseolin, legumelin
Soybean seeds contain a high percentage of proteins. They are also rich sources of calcium, iron, and vitamins (B-complex). They are consumed as food.
Soybean flour is used in making bakery products, biscuits, bread, etc. As it is low in starch content it forms an ideal ingredient for diabetic patients.
Soybean milk obtained by grinding boiled seeds with water is nutritious like cow milk and is used for preparing curd, buttermilk, tofu, etc
Soya sauce is prepared with soybean and rice flour after fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae.
Soyabean oil is edible oil it is used in cooking and salad dressings.
Soyabean oil is used in the manufacture of soaps, lubricants, etc. It is also used in paints, varnishes, and enamel industries.
Soybean meal –the residue left after extraction of oil is rich protein feed for cattle, pigs, and poultry.
Common name – Rajgira
Botanical Name – Amaranthus sps
Family – Amaranthaceae
Part Used – Grain
Type – Protein – Globulin (Amaranthine), Glutelins, also small amounts of Albumin and Prolamins
The name Amaranthus comes from the Greek word AMARANTOS- meaning eternal or unwilling.
Grain Amaranth is a pseudo-cereal because it produces small grain-like seeds and its overall nutrient profile is similar to cereals.
Grain Amaranth contains exceptionally high amounts of calcium, iron, and vitamin C.
It is a very rich source of potassium, vitamin A, E, C, folic acid, and protein.
Grain Amaranth is an important health food as its crude protein content is high (14-19%) with high lysine and tryptophan content. It appeals to consumers since these essential amino acids are low in cereals.
Grain Amaranth seeds are sprouted, roasted, ground into flour, mixed with sugar to make confectionary items, rolled into balls (laddoos), cooked as porridge, or popped (Rajgira Lahi) like popcorn, or flaked like oatmeal.
Grain Amaranth is being developed as an energy food to be combined with traditional cereal grains in breakfast food, bread, multigrain crackers, pancakes or popped as pop snack food.
Grain Amaranth is gaining popularity as it is rich in proteins and is easy to digest.
Common Name – Spirulina
Botanical Name – Spirulina sps
Family – Oscillatoriaceae
Part Used – Entire filament
Type – Protein
Spirulina is a microscopic, unicellular, spirally coiled, filamentous, nonmotile, autotrophic, photosynthetic, prokaryotic alga (blue-green alga). It contains photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll ‘a’, xanthophylls, carotenes and C – phycocyanin, and C – phycoerythrin. It contains a high percentage of digestible proteins (62 – 72 %) as compared to milk and egg. Besides, it also contains fats (6%), carbohydrates (16%), vitamins (like biotin, riboflavin, folic acid, thiamine, cobalamin), minerals (like Ca, P, Fe, Na, K), essential amino acids (like lysine, cysteine, methionine, threonine, phenylalanine), gamma-linolenic acid, antioxidants, and enzymes.
Spirulina is used as supplementary food in the diet of under-nourished children because it is a rich source of proteins, vitamins, amino acids, minerals, crude fibers, etc.
It is a very popular healthy food. It is used to control obesity, as it is poor in fats.
Spirulina possesses many medicinal properties. It lowers the sugar levels in the blood due to the presence of gamma-linolenic acid. It also prevents the accumulation of cholesterol.
It is a rich source of antioxidants thus giving protection from life-threatening diseases like stroke, cancer, etc.
It is a good source of Beta-Carotene which helps to maintain good skin and hair.
Spirulina contains high-quality proteins and vitamins so it is used in making a variety of beauty products like shampoos, face creams, etc.
Common Name – Common Mushroom
Botanical Name – Agaricus bisporus
Family – Agaricaceae
Part Used – Fruiting body (Basidiocarp)
Type – Protein
Mushrooms are low in calories and carbohydrates, are almost cholesterol free and are high in vitamins and minerals, all of which serve as important essential requirements for human health.
Agaricus bisporus is an excellent source of proteins, dietary fibers, vitamins namely- riboflavin, thiamine, pantothenic acid, niacin, folic acid as well as minerals like potassium, selenium, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, antioxidants- ergothioneine. The fungal cell wall contains β-glucans along with ergosterol, tocopherols, linoleic acid, and lectins.
Agaricus bisporus has high protein content and can be used for overcoming malnutrition especially in developing and undeveloped countries.
It is medicinally important due to its anticancer, antidiabetes, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties.
It reduces cholesterol levels thus reducing cardiovascular diseases.